Growing northern spy apple trees

 

Espionage (colloquially, spying ) is the obtaining of information considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. [1] Espionage can be committed by an individual or a spy ring (a cooperating group of spies), in the service of a government or a company, or operating independently. The practice is inherently clandestine , as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a subset of " intelligence " gathering, which includes espionage as well as information gathering from public sources.

Espionage is often part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term is generally associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies primarily for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage .

Further information on clandestine HUMINT ( human intelligence ) information collection techniques is available, including discussions of operational techniques , asset recruiting , and the tradecraft used to collect this information.

Growing northern spy apple trees

The history of Northern Ireland can be traced back to the 17th century, when the English finally succeeded in subduing the island after successfully putting down a number of rebellions. (See Oliver Cromwell ; Battle of the Boyne .) Much land, especially in the north, was subsequently colonized by Scottish and English Protestants , setting Ulster somewhat apart from the rest of Ireland, which was predominantly Catholic .

During the 1800s the north and south grew further apart due to economic differences. In the north the standard of living rose as industry and manufacturing flourished, while in the south the unequal distribution of land and resources—Anglican Protestants owned most of the land—resulted in a low standard of living for the large Catholic population.

Political separation of Northern Ireland from the rest of Ireland did not come until the early 20th century, when Protestants and Catholics divided into two warring camps over the issue of Irish home rule . Most Irish Catholics desired complete independence from Britain, but Irish Protestants feared living in a country ruled by a Catholic majority.

Espionage (colloquially, spying ) is the obtaining of information considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. [1] Espionage can be committed by an individual or a spy ring (a cooperating group of spies), in the service of a government or a company, or operating independently. The practice is inherently clandestine , as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a subset of " intelligence " gathering, which includes espionage as well as information gathering from public sources.

Espionage is often part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term is generally associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies primarily for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage .

Further information on clandestine HUMINT ( human intelligence ) information collection techniques is available, including discussions of operational techniques , asset recruiting , and the tradecraft used to collect this information.

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As a Protestant Queen, Elizabeth was forced to live with the threat of assassination from Catholics throughout her reign. But there was an army of men working in secret to protect the Queen. These were her spies, her secret service, and they were overseen by the most ruthless spy master of them all: Francis Walsingham.

The long and successful reign of Elizabeth I proved that a woman could be as effective and popular a monarch as any King. But there existed around the Queen a critical support structure which was made up almost exclusively of men. This was her network of spies supervised by Walsingham, one of Elizabeth's most loyal ministers, and their aim was to safeguard the life of the Queen. The efficiency of this network unearthed a series of plots to overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots. It is a testament to the success of this secret service that Elizabeth died peacefully of old age and not at the hands of an assassin.

The United States Army Intelligence Support Activity ( USAISA ), frequently shortened to Intelligence Support Activity or ISA , and nicknamed The Activity , is a United States Army Special Operations unit originally subordinated to the US Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM). It is tasked to collect actionable intelligence in advance of missions by other US special operations forces, especially 1st SFOD-D and DEVGRU in counter-terrorist operations.

USAISA was the official name of the unit from 1981 to 1989; previously it was known as the Field Operations Group (FOG), created in September 1980. In 1989, the then USAISA commander sent a telex "terminating" the USAISA term and his special access program Grantor Shadow, but the unit continued under a series of different codenames which are changed every two years; known codenames include Centra Spike, Torn Victor, Quiet Enable, Cemetery Wind, and Gray Fox.

The Field Operations Group (FOG) was created in summer 1980 in order to take part in a second attempt to rescue the U.S. hostages held in the Tehran embassy after the failure of the Operation Eagle Claw . That operation had highlighted the U.S. shortfall in intelligence gathering, [1] in spite of the attempts by Major Richard J. Meadows , who operated undercover in Tehran during the operation. [2] [3]